Easy Rules Of Time Management Between Study And Social Life

Time management

Student life can feel chaotic at the best of times, so it’s no wonder that you’re finding it hard to manage your time. With so much going on, how do you manage to do it all? These easy rules show you that there is a way to get the most out of the college experience while keeping your grades up, too.

Track your time

Everyone can manage to get good grades and be social, they just need to manage their time effectively. If you think you need some help, start with tracking your time. This means spending a week marking off the activity you’re doing every 15 minutes, either in a notebook or on your phone. After a week, you’ll be able to see how much time you’re devoting to each activity, and where you need to start making changes.

Set a schedule

Now you know where you need to be spending your time, so make yourself a schedule. A day planner or a large wall calendar can work well for this. Mark off any important dates, such as exams or quizzes. Then, create your schedule around these. You want to make sure you’re marking out enough time for studying but ensure you get rest periods, too.

Set realistic goals

Now, you’ll need some goals to work towards. What do you really want to get out of school? write down all the things you want to achieve. Now, set some goals that are realistic. To be realistic, a goal needs to be attainable, and possible within the school year. ‘Spend x amount of hours a week studying’ is a better goal than ‘Study as much as possible’, for example.

Make the most of your break times

Despite everything you may already believe, social media platforms, such as Facebook, are the tools of the Internet. There are multiple ways you can use these tools to effectively manage your time. If you’re on a break from work, reply to messages from your friends, planning a time you could meet up after your studying is done, or watch a funny video whilst having a break from your textbooks. This way you can maintain a social life whilst studying.

Pay attention to your environment

When you begin studying, find a place that’s quiet and free from distractions. The library could be a good spot or a quiet room in your house. Wherever you choose to study, make it a habit. That way, your mind will associate the area with getting down to work.

Carry ‘pocket work’

Student and website admin Sarah B. Debellis from Best Australian Writers says, ‘Pocket work is anything that you can handle when you have a spare moment. As a student, it can mean reading a chapter from an assigned text, or reviewing your marks from a previous assignment.’ If you have this work with you, you can make the most of any spare moment to get some studying done. Why waste that time stood in line or on the bus, when you could get ahead?

Recognise that procrastination is self-defeating

Every student is familiar with the concept of procrastination. It’s easy to put jobs off for later, and not think about it. However, to truly master time management, you need to recognise that procrastination is really self-defeating. You get a break in the short-term, but the work will still be waiting for you, and you’ll have less time to complete it in.

Give yourself a break

Having said this though, this doesn’t mean you can’t have a break. In fact, it’s better to give yourself regular breaks or your studying won’t be effective. The key is to schedule them in and stick to the time allotted. Around 5-10 minutes break per hour of studying is usually the best ratio, so give it a try.

Reward yourself for sticking to schedule

It’s easier to stick to your time management schedule when you have something to look forward to. Create rewards that will incentivize you to get on with your work. This can be anything from a candy bar if you finish this evening’s studying, to a theme park trip if you pass your exams.

Break projects down

If your work seems too big and overwhelming to deal with, don’t worry. You can make it easier by breaking the whole project down. Create smaller tasks that will help you towards completing the bigger one, and complete them one by one. This way, you’ll see the results much more quickly, and be less tempted to procrastinate.

With these tips, you can get the most out of your day, and balance your studying and social life. Give them a try for yourself.

 

Collective intelligence examples – Goldcorp Inc. and SETI@home project

Orchestra - as a collective intelligence examples

Collective intelligence examples are everywhere -We need to be discerning to know them.

There is a huge compendium of collective intelligence examples at this MIT site. It lists down all the social media and knowledge exchange technology platforms available on the market.

Here, in this article, I have written about two collective intelligence examples. Examples where participants self-organise and regulate themselves without needing an external medium like a technology platform to make things happen.

Mass collaboration has allowed us to create huge low-cost collaborative infrastructure projects.  These projects allow millions of people to collaborate and co-create products. Productive capability of people will now be better through such collaboration as the value creation is quick and easy flowing to reach the masses. Research profoundly says that the new collaborative way of working and capability, will be the future of business models in companies and how individuals perform work.

Research profoundly says that the new collaborative way of working and capability, will be the future of business models in companies and how individuals perform work.

This collective action of bright minds joining together as one social activity to create value and there by leading to a coordinated decision making is what “Collective intelligence” is all about.

Infact, collective intelligence is a sub-set of such mass collaboration. In other words, we need to have mass collaborations for collective intelligence to take place.

We are going to talk about two diverse Collaborative collective intelligence examples as initiatives that has happened in the past and look at how these initiatives sustained and were a great success. These stories were told over and over again by many. But then, what is important is to capture the essence of what is to come in the future.

Goldcorp Inc. – The Goldcorp Challenge as  collective intelligence examples

It would be interesting to talk about Rob McEven, the then CEO of Goldcorp Inc. who had a spark of an idea in the year 1999 and went on to launch one of the World’s most successful collaborative collective intelligence efforts which made history.

Goldcorp Inc. is a gold mining and gold producing company headquartered in Canada and was going through a rough patch facing bankruptcy and closure in 1998.  Goldcorp also owned the underperforming fifty-year-old mine at Red lake in Ontario, Canada.  With its mine dying, the company was also doomed to die eventually. There was unrest within the employees with strikes and debts looming.

In-house geologists within Goldcorp couldn’t find and locate gold deposits within the mining site and nor they came up with favorable solutions.  They looked forward for McEven for a turnaround and for his leadership.

With his company still in lot of uncertainty by the year 1999, McEven attended a conference sponsored by the MIT. He was listening through the lectures and then a striking story came about on how “Linus Torvalds” created the Linux, the world class operating system by assembling a group of software developers.

When Torvalds revealed his code to the world, it allowed some thousands of willing programmers to voluntarily contribute to the development of the operating system. The contributors would vet it, make amends and further released newer versions of the software.

McEven contemplated and thought about it. He had a moment of insight. If his employees were not able to find gold deposits at the Red Lake then may by someone else could. He set of with his spark of insight and discussed many follow through ideas with his team.

The Goldcorp challenge,

In the year 2000, the Goldcorp challenge was born. It is one among many collective intelligence examples. He (McEven) decided to throw open the exploration of gold deposits to the world. Sharing all the knowledge and expertise they had with them from the last 50 years from 1948.

Initially, there was lot reluctance from within his team members. As his ideas were unconventional. The concept of Collaborative ‘Collective intelligence” and Wisdom were not known to the mining industry and the world audience.

Largely, the mining industry was a secretive industry. Nobody ever revealed information about a site and its geology. It was considered precious and proprietary data. Nevertheless, they decided to go ahead with the Goldcorp challenge in March, 2000 with a prize money of $ 575,000 available for participants and contributors who had the best ideas, techniques and estimates for finding and locating gold deposits at the dying site at Red lake.

All the geological data that Goldcorp had from the last fifty years was shared with the public though software and sharing infrastructure. People from all walks of life – Geologists, ex-military, students, scientists and consultants participated and contributed. It was a tremendous collective response and intelligence working together. McEven had his team were surprised at, the amount of information and expert talent and intelligence that was available externally.

Even as the concept of Collective intelligence existed many years before, McEven chance stumbled into “Collective intelligence” through a spark of an insight for the mining industry. So great was the response, that within weeks of sharing the information, the contributors had identified 110 targets within the Red Lake mining site. Out of which 50 % of the targets were totally new and not identified before and about 80% of them yielded vasts amounts of Gold deposits.

Fractal Graphics

Fractal Graphics, an Australian Geoscience consulting firm and Taylor Wall and Associates together shared the first place winner’s prize of $ 105,000 in the contest. The scientific team at Fractal graphics based in Australia and had not visited Canada and the mining site before but they still managed to make collective efforts, pooled their resources and minds together and worked on from Australia to present winning locations for gold deposits.

Goldcorp today, is enjoying the seeds of ideas and effort that was sown 16 years back. It has now become the 4th largest producer of gold in the world. The company has successfully harnessed collective intelligence and turned itself around.

Cooperative computing at the SETI @ home project – A collective intelligence example

Collective intelligence at seti
Collective intelligence search for ET

SETI@home (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence) is an experimental project for using distributed public resources across the world. Public resources in the likes of idle computing power in our PC’s and Laptops at our homes and offices.  This idle computing power can be used to analyze radio telescope signals. A distributed cooperative computing happening in time where the collective intelligence of all machines across the world, can be used to speed up the enormous processing and computing power and resources required for the analysis.

The radio telescopes erected around the world listen to the narrow bandwidth radio signals from outer space. These radio signals are not naturally occurring and so analyzing them would provide evidence for the existence of Alien intelligence lurking out there or maybe even a contact is possible.

Carl Sagan

For those of you, who have grown up seeing the television serial “COSMOS” in the year 1980 where Carl Sagan (The man behind the SETI project) narrates the mysteries of the universe, the project and such extraterrestrial experiments for finding life outside earth would be a thrilling experience. The Hollywood movie “Contact” is also based on such radio telescope signal analysis where in a riveting story unfolds based on it. So popular is the SETI project for people across the world that it has remained as a fantastic exploration and quest for life outside earth in the minds of people.

The SETI @HOME project was launched by the Space sciences laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley in May, 1999. The Challenge was that the computers at the SETI@home project had to analyze each and every radio signal frequency and decide whether it is an intelligent signal or a noise and it had to listen to a huge number of frequencies. It required massive computational resources to accomplish this.

Buying such massive computational resource is expensive. So they thought about a clever way of using idle computing power lying at our homes and offices. All we need to do is to download the software program which is now available as part of the BOINC  (Berkeley open infrastructure for network computing) infrastructure.

Machine intelligence is also collective intelligence

The software program comes in the form of a screen saver for your PC or laptop. When your PC is idle, the screen saver actually downloads a packet of data from SETI@home, processes the packet of data and sends it back to SETI@home. Each packet of data contains a work Unit of radio signals. It is as simple as this but then the infrastructure provisions and the challenges inherent in such large distributed computing was very evident.

Even though there is machine intelligence involved, this is real computational collective intelligence at work. Processing the radio signals in a cooperative fashion and helping towards the signal decision making for a greater cause is real collective intelligence that the world can see and wait for the results.

Since its inception, the project performed 10 21   floating point operations and this distributed computing as entered into “Guinness book of records” as the world’s largest distributed computing research project.

So far, the project has not detected any extraterrestrial signal but has identified candidate sky positions where likely concentration of intelligent radio signals might be lurking. Expectations are that somewhere between in the years of 2020 to 2025 that enough evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence would be found.

Hope you liked reading about the two collective intelligence examples above. If you like this article, please do share us.

Further resources on this subject

  1. MIT Centre for collective intelligence – Good resource for collective intelligence examples.
  2. He struck gold on the net (Really)
  3. Wikinomics – How mass collaboration changes everything
  4. How stuff works – SETI@home project
  5. About SETI@home

If you find this article interesting, please do share us

Collaboration of ideas through knowledge brokering

leap through knowledge brokering

knowledge brokering- Summary

Curious as I was, it was first time I heard about the concept called the “knowledge brokering cycle”. I was pleasantly stunned and surprised that much has already been researched and written about this technique of new idea generation process. Never the less, this a best practice followed the world over.

Knowledge brokering helps us make those leaps from old ideas to new ideas and apply them to newer contexts in an easier fashion.

I am talking about the article “Building an innovation factory” written by Andrew Hargadon and Robert E. Sutton in the June 2000 issue of Harvard business review. After going through the concepts presented in the article, felt it was widely relevant even today considering how businesses can be innovative in the changing dynamics of the business environment. We all know that new ideas are so precious in the modern economy. It does not have to be done in an isolated fashion. The business of producing new ideas and testing them have now been made more systematic and it can be followed and implemented by any organization.

Let us have a look at Wikipedia and see  what it says about “Knowledge Brokering”

“A knowledge broker is an intermediary (an organization or a person), that aims to develop relationships and networks with, among, and between producers and users of knowledge by providing linkages, knowledge sources, and in some cases knowledge itself.”

The recycling of old ideas has been the primary engine for generating new ideas. This generation of new ideas is done through a set of processes or best practices known as the knowledge brokering cycle. The knowledge brokering cycle has four parts leading to innovation.

  1. Recording and capturing all the old ideas.
  2. Discussion and interaction on the older ideas to keep it alive.
  3. Brainstorming on the old ideas to generate new ideas.
  4. Finally, converting the new ideas into useful and commercially viable business concepts, processes or products.

The wonderful part is that each one of the parts can be practiced independently by individuals or companies or they can be used as a set of processes for generating new ideas. They serve as a best practice. Leaders and individuals who use these processes have to change their thinking and should foster that culture within their organizations.

Such thinking is increasingly practiced by more and more companies. These companies know that it is the new ideas that move their companies ahead and without which they would become obsolete.

Understanding the Knowledge brokering cycle

Organizational leaders  know that it is no longer about working in silos but it is all about the attitude and helping each other. The more the ideas from each and everyone in the company, the better. They have learnt to systematically use the old ideas as raw materials to generate new ideas.

The process of conversion of old ideas to new ideas by following a set of systematic processes is what the knowledge brokering cycle for innovation is all about. There are some intermediary companies and organizations who take up the work of bringing together all the old ideas and make a newer connection. They make use of the old ideas in a new way, in a different combination and in a different industry.

There are many wonderful examples, where proven and established concepts are reused and recycled in a different contexts. This is an excellent way to spark creativity and innovation.

A wonderful example to mention is that of the steam engines. For more than 75 years, the steam engines ran in mines and then came Robert Fulton. Robert Fulton thought deeply about it and then came up with the idea of using the same steam engine for propelling a steam boat.  He then later on developed the first commercially accepted steam boat using a steam engine. A classic example of using a steam engine in an altogether different problem. He thus made the leap.

So it is obvious, that we need to make those leaps from older ideas and apply them in newer contexts. Knowledge brokering as a concept and as a best practice helps us make those leaps. The leaps become more and more easier as we keep embracing the knowledge brokering processes.

Now let’s quickly look at the four parts of the knowledge brokering cycle. As we have said earlier, even though the article is written in the year 2000, it is widely relevant and prevalent even today. We would say that these processes have matured, as most organizations not just within the design firms like “Ideo” and startup incubators like “Idea labs” but also other smaller organizations, consulting companies across many industries across the world who have applied these best practices within their own processes and work practices.

1.Recording and capturing old ideas

The first obvious step is of-course to record and capture all old ideas. Leave no stone un-turned. Even if you are not sure, whether a particular idea may/may not be of use, record and capture it anyway. We never know, how it can be of use in the future.

The process is simple. When you find an old idea, you simply do not throw it away but you play with it within your mind and see what more can be done. How it works and doesn’t work in certain situations and so on. One can start imagining different ways of doing and applying the idea. But, all these mental calculations start after you have recorded and captured it.

For example, in IDEO, the design firm, employees take a field trip to a local toy shop or a hardware store to just get to see how things work. By seeing and being there, there are chances that new ideas might happen. Similarly, there are organizations which arrange employees on training to go on a field trip to visit local industries.

We can take another example from Thomas Alva Edison. This was almost hundred years ago. Edison followed many work practices, which he sincerely followed and the result of course are so many of his inventions. He says,

  1. First study the present model or construction
  2. Then, look for past experiences
  3. Do as much background reading and researching on the subject as possible.

Many innovative companies including consulting companies follow the same model for re-engineering their business processes and for process and work improvements as well.

The idea collection goes on and takes up different shapes in many industries. As mentioned earlier, many companies operate as intermediaries or play the role of knowledge brokering. They collect as much information as possible on the products and observe the users. They also engage in scanning the environment. Such scanning, recording and capturing ideas aid in initiating the next big project.

Usually, big consulting companies like Accenture engage all their clients from diverse industries once in a while and invite them over for a conference to talk about diverse industry issues and challenges. Some of these issues may lead to new ideas and thereby innovation. You just need to keep imagining. Some may click and some may not. The important thing here is that we need to keep collecting all the ideas.

2.Discussion and interaction on the old ideas to keep it alive

This is the second step in the knowledge brokering process and which is also very crucial for the successful outcome of generating new ideas in the knowledge brokering cycle.  We need to keep the ideas alive. Discussion and interaction of the existing ideas is a continuous activity. Often, the biggest obstacles in solving the problems is not ignorance, it is not getting the right information at right time. Many people miss this information, even if they have already known or learnt about it.

Lot of information is tacit in the minds of employees. Companies lose information when employees leave them. The notion that “All ideas are good” holds true. We just need to keep piling with more and more ideas.

We need to keep discussing about the ideas and interacting with each other on “What works” and “What does not work”.

An excellent example, is the use of “Tech boxes” at IDEO. Each employee at the company owns a Tech box.  A “Tech box” is a huge collection of material (usually, interesting ideas) that the employee has collected over the years and curates it.  Over a weekly conference call, the employees discuss new additions to these boxes. This is an excellent way for employees to keep looking at their boxes and discuss it over with their colleagues. In this way, the ideas are kept alive, discussed over and passed on to others. Sometimes these stored ideas can be reused by others as well.

Ideas would die, if they are not kept alive. Practice and experience says that if the ideas are not embedded in real life objects, they would eventually die.

It was for these very characteristics that the employees at IDEO were respected for they went out of their way to help others.

Another classic example is the knowledge management system at Accenture. Initially, when they developed, they thought that the presentation slides and reference documents would be sufficient. But, this didn’t really serve the purpose. The employees did not warm up to it.

The employees used the reference documents and slides as annotated yellow pages. These pages would give them information on whom to connect to, for getting the information. Whom they should really talk to, to get the rest of the information.  The team at Accenture learnt the hard way that “having a huge database of information, is alone not enough to solve the problems”. There were lot of learnings from this direct observation and they redesigned the system.

The team at Mc-Kinsey accomplishes this by maintaining a database of “who knows what”. Through this method, the Ideas were kept alive, fresh and they were always discussed about.

Edison was also known for keeping his ideas alive. He remembered all his old ideas and had the ability to know, when and where it was used.

3.Brainstorming on the old ideas to get newer ideas

The next important step in the knowledge brokering cycle is to find out and identify new uses for the old ideas, apply and test them for newer contexts and situations.

Nowadays, we find lot of crosspollination of ideas that happen. The internet and the social media is full of such examples. Would like to talk about two of them which caught the fancy.

The first one is the usage of old plastic pet bottles. Instead of throwing them away in the garbage can for recycling, people have found innovative ways of cutting them into two halves and using them for growing small house plants, pen stands, magazine stands and shoe racks etc.

The second one is the usage of the big plastic water drum. These plastic drums are sliced into thin strips of plastic. These strips are then used for making garden chairs.

There are many classic examples. The one on Edison’s bulb was memorable. The bulbs kept falling from their fixtures. A technician thought about this problem and suggested that they use threads after noticing a threaded cap of a kerosene bottle. And thus the threaded bulb was born.

When you start talking a lot about your problems, at one point in time you will know, who will be able to help you better. Conferences on specific issues and topics that happen all the time around the world, informal talk with colleagues and formal brainstorming sessions are some of the ways that people share their problems and this way new ideas are born.

There is also the redesign of office physical spaces. The designs are made in such a way that people always bump into each other.  Very typical of an open office space  where everyone meets everybody.

A wise man once said “the real measure of success is the number of experiments that can be crowded in 24 hours”.

4.Converting the new ideas into useful and commercially viable business concepts, processes or products.

The fourth and final step in the knowledge brokering cycle looks into the aspect of turning those ideas into useful concepts or products. A good idea needs to be converted into something that can be tested and experimented and if successful needs to be integrated into the rest of the other processes or pursued independently.

It is in this stage, as we experiment and test with the ideas that the mistakes can be known, rectified and improvements can be made.

There are many organizations within this knowledge brokering step that involve themselves in prototyping and making simulations. These techniques aid in refining and further developing on those ideas so that they become commercially viable.

The focus should be on testing and solving the problems and not on the final solutions. Final solutions will fall in place once we get it right with highest quality. Prototyping and testing should be part and parcel of the process towards innovation.

The positive aspects of such testing and experiments are that we know where the failures are and we learn from our mistakes and improve upon them.

Knowledge brokering groups – inside organizations.

Any company can make use of the knowledge brokering groups that exist informally within the various functions. They can be formally assigned as the knowledge brokering group and can be given the task of assimilating facts and figures of what everybody is doing and moving the ideas from one place to another place. They act as a point of contact for further knowledge.  Other employees and business groups within the function can count on them and avoid re-inventing the wheel scenarios.

If a particular concept has already been implemented in another business unit even if it is across the globe, The knowledge brokering group can help disseminate it to the rest of the organization or to where it is needed.

A good example of this case is the Hewlett Packard’s SPAM group which was formed way back in the 1990’s to optimize the supply chains. SPAM (Strategic planning and modelling) used powerful modelling techniques to analyze “What if” scenarios and spread it to the rest of the organization.

It goes without saying, innovation can always be given a boost if the organizations can foster the right culture and if the people working inside can carry the same attitude of openness in helping others.

The people should cultivate an attitude of shared culture and openness in helping others.

Particularly, people working in the knowledge brokering groups should be curious as to know “what else they can do with the ideas and concepts and where it can be used “ rather than “from where it has come from or who has given it “. Interestingly, an “Ego scale” has been developed to screen staff from joining or raising a startup organization. This scale was developed by one “James Rabbins”.

So on a scale of 1-10, an “Ego scale” rating of 7 or 8 would suffice. A rating of 10 would be somebody who acts as if they know everything and have nothing more to learn and rating of 3 would mean somebody who lacks the confidence to be successful entrepreneurs.

The idea of the “Ego scale” is to have somebody with a right mix of confidence and humility. Such individuals will create the collaborative culture needed for the knowledge brokering groups to thrive.

Financial rewards from the organizations might help but true respect, self-worth and success for the knowledge brokering groups come when they are selfless in contributing new ideas and freely brainstorming without inhibitions. They understand that “when you give, a new insight happens”.

Please also read our internal resource from Work Monkey Labs on a similar topic

Learning from inventors and scientists- Successive collaboration of ideas

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